Monday, August 24, 2020

United States in the Views of Adam Smith and Karl Marx Essay Sample free essay sample

Presentation The point is to examine the United States political and financial framework in the purpose of position of two remarkable monetary personalities. Adam Smith and Karl Marx. The two hypotheses will be utilized to inquire about the monetary judgments of the United States talking scarceness. partners and their effect on financial judgments. creation and the use of gainful assets. Adam Smith-Biography Adam Smith. appeared in Figure 1. was conceived in Kirkadly. Scotland in the twelvemonth of 1723. He moved on from the University of Glasgow at 17 years old and his directions and distributions turned out to be acceptable known. While going all through Europe. he met numerous pioneers known as physiocrats. whose convictions affected Smith. Adam was against the monetary arrangement of his coevals which was commercial framework. This framework was fruitful when a state would send out more than they import and they would limit imports following in cash fluxing into the state and tiny going out which making a progressively productive state. We will compose a custom article test on US in the Views of Adam Smith and Karl Marx Essay Sample or on the other hand any comparable subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page He accepted that individuals ought to be permitted to work with no restrictions and by making so. it work will for the financial framework. Smith’s monetary hypothesis depended on how individuals’ sense of self inclusion benefits the financial framework rather than the incredible Torahs upheld by the specialists. He expounded on his hypotheses in his two most praised plants. The Theory of Moral Sentiments and The Wealth of Nations. Adam Smith kicked the bucket on July 17. 1790 ( Bolotta. Hawkes. Mahoney. Flute player ) . Karl Marx-Biography Karl Heinrich Marx. appeared in figure 2. was conceived on May 5. 1818 in Rhineland. Germany. He considered teaching and history at the University of Berlin. He got his primary care physicians degree at 23 years old and wedded two mature ages in this manner. He was in obstruction of the monetary development during his clasp as it depended on core entrepreneur rules. The rich get rich off the work of the hapless. He was extremely much against the wealthy life. other than known as the Bourgeoisie and upheld the lower working classification. known as the Proletariat. He began printing his communist situations through segments to the masses thus he was in no time in issue with the specialists and had to go forward the state. He and Friedrich Engels combined and composed their hypothesis of socialism in The Communist Manifesto. They accepted that the unrest of socialism would get down after the Proletariat ascend to the Bourgeoisie ( Bolotta. Hawkes. Mahoney. Flute player ) . History and Description of Government The United States turned into its ain state on July fourth 1776. which is currently known as its Independence Day. after the American Revolution when they isolated from the control of Great Britain ( Wikipedia History ) . The state built up a sort of specialists called the Fundamental law of the United States in 1787 which permitted residents equivalent rights and an actualized a rule of their obligations as great. The Bill of Rights followed soon after in 1791. revising that every individual has certain rights that can non be taken off from them even by the specialists ( Wikipedia 2010 ) . It is clear from the activities of the United States that the specialists was worked under numerous guidelines by Adam Smith. Leting residents their privileges exhibits that a cardinal approval will non be in power which was the convictions of Karl Marx. Vote based system was displayed by the United States as individuals were enabled to cast a ballot and choose agents for the state ( Wikipedia 201 0 ) . Portrayal of Economy With a populace of 310 million and a GDP of $ 14. 4 trillion. appeared in figure 3. the United States positions as one of the greatest human dynamo states known to man. The financial development that was preeminent presented by Alexandar Hamilton in the late seventeenth century has internationally become the most grounded framework ( Wikipedia 2010 ) . The gross household stock estimates the states generally speaking estimation of financial creation. The higher a states GDP is. the more productive the monetary framework becomes ( Wikipedia 2010 ) . Adam Smith bolstered The Law of Population which shows a roundabout correlativity between the creation of a state and its populace. For outline. it is appeared in figure 2 and 3 that both the GDP and populace of the United States have expanded over the past pair of decennaries. This hypothesis expresses that as creation increments. business will increment and organizations will in a matter of seconds increment the awards of the laborers th ey utilize. As a result of higher prizes. citizens’ everyday environments will better including having the option to gracefully better health consideration in this way. death rates abatement and populace augmentations. In the United States this has been valid as far as possible compensation has fundamentally expanded from about $ 3. 35 to $ 7. 25 in the past duo of decennaries which has been one of the foundations for populace to increment ( Wikipedia 2010 ) . Adam Smith’s rules are unmistakably obvious in the financial development of the United States. He accepted that self contribution. net gain being the motivation. will generally speaking benefit the financial framework introducing a â€Å"free market† where it is guided by gracefully and request. The United States is an entrepreneur grouped financial framework proposing to a great extent everything in the state is in private claimed. This permits worries to run and keep up total compensations all things considered Karl Marx accepted. entrepreneur economy will simply let the rich to secure more extravagant and the hapless get less fortunate. This hypothesis is valid in the United States on the grounds that the specialists does non step in underway. The unseeable manus which is a hypothesis Adam Smith accepted will let the powers of the market to run its characteristic class. Factors, for example, gracefully. request. rivalry will obviously order the monetary framework which is the reason he trusted Torahs ought to non shorten the market. The American financial framework i n private claims to a great extent everything, for example, health consideration ( Bolotta. Hawkes. Mahoney. Flautist ) . Wellbeing consideration in the United States is one of the most beneficial ventures since everything must be paid for by residents ( OECD ) . Dissimilar to greater part of other to the full created states that give health thoughtfulness regarding residents. wellbeing consideration establishments are essentially possessed and run by the private part ( Wikipedia 2010 ) . Appeared in Figure 4. American residents spend the most known to mankind on wellbeing consideration which demonstrates a downside for an entrepreneur monetary framework as residents get tiny guide from the specialists. Utilization of Scarce Resources and its Effectss The speculations of both financial specialists did non straight observe regular assets however with the example of their monetary frameworks. the utilization of exchange merchandise can be investigated. Karl Marx accepted that a cardinal approval should order what to deliver and its amount would be founded on the requests of its kin ( Bolotta. Hawkes. Mahoney. Flute player ) . Request does non come into dramatization in this hypothesis since individuals are enduring on what is important and non on their needs. While examining the United States’ judgments on the use of scant assets. the market chooses. In position of the two personalities. the United States keeps a larger number of rules sing scarceness from Adam Smith than Karl Marx. Glancing further in thing at this hypothesis. regular assets are non utilized as quickly if a state follows this financial hypothesis. Working under this framework has demonstrated to non be the most sensible. On the off chance that a state is bri ng forthing each piece much as customers need of a product. the scant asset will instantly bounty run out. As appeared in figure 5 ( Ausubel ) . the whole backdown of H2O has been geometrically expanding for the last 100 mature ages. The existent ingestion of H2O is considerably less ; demonstrating that a major main part of H2O is being squandered. At the rate that H2O is being utilized. it will run out and humankind will non have the option to deliver anything without it. Oil is another delineation of an exchange decent that is being over utilized for about everything. America imported around 3. 300. 000 1000 barrels of oil in the past twelvemonth ( U. S. 2010 ) . Customer request of oil is endless ( appeared in figure 6 ) and until it wraps up. it will ever be popular. The â€Å"free market† of the United States permits individuals to purchase any exchange great. regardless of whether gracefully is altogether decreasing ( Bolotta. Hawkes. Mahoney. Flute player ) . For representation. oil is being utilized for travel. to fuel automobiles. trucks. planes. and so on. In spite of the fact that it is permitted. it is non crucial for everybody to purchase an auto or a boarding pass. By making so. consumerâ₠¬â„¢s wants and needs result in the unneeded ingestion of characteristic assets. While breaking down the scarceness in a state. Karl Marx’s hypothesis works better for proficiency as regular assets will non be venturing out to blow. given that in a socialist financial framework. the figure of products being delivered will only be bounty to drag out human perseverance and non their wants. His assessment is that a cardinal approval controls the basicss of creation and obligation is shared between all residents each piece. The financial estimation of products will neer increment as shoppers are non given the choice to interest for makers to raise fiscal qualities ( Bolotta. Hawkes. Mahoney. Flautist ) . By runing under Adam Smith’s convictions. the United States specialists is leting makers to deliver each piece much as conceivable insofar as purchaser request is high. This will presently bounty lead the United States to a monetary emergency when an asset runs out and shoppers will be left exposed. On the off chance that there was no more oil left known to man. the a large portion of import partners that would be influenced are the maker

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Patriot :: essays research papers

THE PATRIOT Blur IN: EXT. THE SWAMPS OF SOUTH CAROLINA - NIGHT Dull. Dismal. Kudzu dangles from the bogs maples. A dull and restricting spot. A winged animal CRIES EERILY in the murkiness. Creepy crawlies HUM forebodingly. SUPERIMPOSITION: FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A unit of French warriors with a few wagons makes it's way along a sloppy street slice through the bog. The warriors are careful, filtering the underbrush, weapons prepared. In the bog, corresponding to the street, SHADOWED FIGURES, tucked away among the brush, quietly track the French warriors. As the lead wagon turns over a sloppy puddle, riding it, a MUD-COVERED FIGURE, comes to up, gets the wagon's undercarriage, pulls itself up and sticks, inconspicuous to the underside of the wagon. The figure, clouded by the mud, scarcely looks human. As different wagons turn over other sloppy miseries in the street, three more mud-concealed figures reach, snatch what's more, stick to the underside of different wagons. Fortification CHARLES The doors are opened. The soothed French troopers animate their pace and rush into the overall security of the fortification. In the post yard the exhausted separation scatters. UNDER THE LEAD WAGON The principal dim, mud-shrouded figure quietly drops to the ground and draws an unmistakable TOMAHAWK from his belt as different figures drop from different wagons. The figures slither through the shadows toward the guards who are shutting the fundamental entryways. THEY SPRING... the lead figure runs forward, raises his TOMAHAWK and HACKS DOWN at a TERRIFIED FRENCH SENTRY... The other sloppy figures join the assault... smothering the shouts of the French officers with VICIOUS KNIFE Cuts... increasing valuable seconds... A FRENCH SOLDIER CRIES OUT... sounding the alert... other FRENCH SOLDIERS come coming up short on the obscurity... The four sloppy figures, persevere at the door, ruthlessly slaughtering the French ridiculously, holding the entryways open as... Many other sloppy makes sense of race of the encompassing swamp, tearing through the fortification doors, joining the butcher... The lead figure, HACKS, over and over with his tomahawk... Blood and substance spread his arm as the horrendous edge rises what's more, falls in the midst of the SCREAMS in the dimness... Break down TO: EXT. SOUTH CAROLINA COUNTRYSIDE - DAY Wonderful daylight. Ethereal SHOT of a post rider running along a street through quiet untamed forests. Taking off old-development elms curve over riverside maples along the shores of the delicately bending, profound water Santee River. SUPERIMPOSITION: SOUTH CAROLINA April, 1776 The post rider rides along a raised marsh street. On either roadside, beautiful shafts of daylight penetrate the shade falling onto delicate, influencing greeneries that spread the high grounds. Many BIRDS SING. The water is clear, with fields of skimming lily cushions, each with a unmistakable white blossom ascending from it. EXT. New WATER PLANTATION - DAY

Saturday, July 25, 2020


tidbits Hello Internet! Im briefly poking my head into the blogosphere as a respite from a very busy IAP (which Ill hopefully get to blogging about eventually). But since I dont really have anything interesting to say about IAP yet, and I couldnt think of a single unified topic to write about, I decided to answer a bunch of questions from the blogger bot that Lydia K. so generously created for us bloggers who cant think of anything to blog about. Pi or tau? Pi. (If its okay with the other person(s),) tell us your funniest (PG-13) MIT   relationship disaster story. I actually haven’t really had anything noteworthy in this arena the first person I got into a relationship with at MIT is now my boyfriend :) We often hear strange snippets of conversation as we walk through public   spaces. Tell us about a time you overheard something interesting. Overheard at a fencing practice last year: “This is MUCH less sexual if you understand quantum field theory.” Good news: another hour has just been added to every 24-hour day. How do   you use those extra sixty minutes? Sleep, obviously. What do you do to punt, de-stress, or reset, on or off the Internet? What   things on the Internet help you feel more happy and less anxious? When I’m by myself, I like to listen to music or watch BBC nature documentaries. More frequently, I force myself out of my room to go wander around and find people to hang out with, or watch something on Netflix with my boyfriend. Are you a night owl or are you the early bird? Whats your most productive   time of day? When do you do your best work? I’m definitely not an early bird, but as I’ve gotten older, I’ve found it more difficult to stay up late. Last semester, I found that my most productive hours were in the afternoon. What are your resolutions? What do you want to accomplish over the next   year/semester? Due to an unfortunate health complication, one of my resolutions is to be more healthy. This means cutting sugar and red meat out of my diet, and since those are most of the things that I enjoy eating, that’s going to be hard. I also want to be better at saving money; I realized between buying my own brass rat and taking a spring break trip to Vienna, I’ll need to have enough money put aside. Film (or write about, Im sure) anything related to music in MIT. This has already been done for me check out this fusion performance of Phantom of the Opera by my a cappella group, the MIT Ohms (I solo at 2:15!) Type up/embed/describe a short scene from a favorite book or movie and tell   us about how something in your life is like that scene. There’s a scene from my favorite movie (Final Fantasy 7: Advent Childrensurprise surprise) in which the protagonist Cloud (the guy with the spiky blond hair) is physically pulled upwards by all of his friends to fight the very, very large monster threatening to destroy the city. I always see it as a metaphor for the support that friends and family provide in one’s life they pull you up and give you the boost you need to fight your own monsters. I cry every time I watch this scene. (I cried when I watched it before hyperlinking it to this paragraph) What do you need to do within 30 minutes of waking up to ensure your day   gets off on the right foot? What happened last time you didnt? When I get up really early (before 11 am), I like to have a cup of tea or coffee to get me going. Otherwise, I like waiting until the last possible minute to get out of bed because there’s nothing than puts me in a worse mood than getting out of bed. Whats your signature beverage? How did it achieve that status? It would probably have to be thai ice tea boba, the only flavor of boba I really enjoy. Unfortunately, I can no longer drink the boba that’s normally sold in MIT fundraisers, but fortunately, I’ve learned how to make my own, reasonable tasting approximation. I also just really like making people tea, so tea in general is probably my signature beverage.   Do you have any funny/harrowing/interesting memories from a sporting event   you attended, participated in, or watched at MIT? At the first fencing meet of this year, I started off very strong in the preliminary bouts, and was ranked somewhere in the high 20s out of 50ish people going into single elimination. At some point in my single elimination bout, my muscle froze up and I made the mistake of trying to push through the match. After struggling and getting to 14-14, I couldn’t make the last touch and barely made it off the strip before my leg started spasming. I was really sad that I couldn’t have done better moral of the story is to stretch better, I guess. Tell us about something fun you do for/around pi day (especially if there   are pis or pies or taus involved). My high school used to have a huge festival in the cafeteria with lots of pi/pie related activities. The one I remember most vividly was the chance to pie our principal in the face. Whats messier right nowâ€"your bedroom or your computers desktop? Tell us   how it got to that state. My computer desktop I never look at it, and so it just builds up a layer of downloaded apps and files. My laundry basket does get obscenely full from time to time though.   Your dorm is on fire. Grab five items (assume all people and animals are   safe). What did you grab? A box of cards and notes that people have written me My guitar My Buster Sword necklace that I keep hanging next to my sink My blanket because it is really soft and I love it My equally soft body pillow What did you do for fun in high school? How did these things define who you   were then, and how have they defined who you are now? I played video games for fun and now theres a non-trivial chance that I might make video games for a living. Direct correlation! Teach us something youve learned at MIT, academic or otherwise. After three semesters of being on varsity fencing, I’ve determined that it takes almost exactly four songs to speed walk from East Campus to the Z-Center for practice. Tell us about a time you made a false assumption about a person, a place, a   class, or a department. How did they prove you wrong? Somewhere halfway through the middle of last semester, I was wholly convinced that I would never have to apply any of the knowledge gleaned from my 6.004 (Computation Structures) class, mostly because I was doing poorly in it and I was trying to console myself. As a 6-3, 6.004 is the most “hardware” class that I’ll ever have to take, and I was fairly sure that if I just got through the class, I would never have to think about it again. I proved myself royally wrong by getting an entire job interview filled with stuff I wouldn’t have known a thing about without some knowledge of 6.004. I also got that job, and that’s what I’ll be doing this summer, so I paid a lot more attention to 6.004 after that Tell us about the last time you got lost at MIT or in Boston/Cambridge. Was   it an enjoyable experience, or a stressful one? (Disclaimer: This story has been *edited* slightly for reasons) I remember that I was exploring the 30-something buildings with some friends, and we split off to explore and said we’d reconvene in building 9 in fifteen minutes. The challenge was to do this without ever exiting the buildings. I proceeded to get very lost fun fact, the 30-something buildings are only connected through the 3rd floor and I did not know this as a freshman so I spent twenty minutes running around with a dead phone, with no idea of where I was, and I eventually gave up and took Vassar Street to get to building 9. A prefrosh needs directions to Baker House. Instead of the fastest route,   give him/her the one involving the most fun (legal) detours. To be honest, I barely know where the dorms on Dorm Row are, so I can’t even give a good answer to this. How did you handle the waiting period between hitting submit and March (or   even between then and August (also known as senior year))? I graduated early and took a gap semester in Japan my senior year. I also studied for a bunch of ASEs, none of which I ended up passing (pro tip to seniors: just enjoy your summer, cause it’s probably the last one you’ll ever have in which you’ll have lots of free time). Take some selfies with your friends and tell us about who your friends are   and what you guys are doing together. My friends and I are watching Spiderman 3 while I write this post! Im writing as I complain about how bad this movie is :P Tell us a story about your relationship with a musical instrument and how   that relationship has played into (hah) your experiences at MIT. I taught myself how to play guitar in junior year of high school because I was too shy to sing songs a cappella, which means without any instrumental accompaniment (how the times have changed). It was the only instrument that I brought to MIT and I’ve initiated many a late night jam session with it. Playing the guitar always reminds me of the many ways that music brings people together; with just a few chords and a well-known pop song, you can get an entire room of people to sing along with you, and I think thats something magical. Take a photo of ordinary equipment that you use regularly at a UROP or   elsewhere, and tell us about what it does and how you use it. Jibo the personal robot! I dont *use* Jibo yet, but hes too cute not to post on here. Im UROPing in the Personal Robots group at the Media Lab for this IAP and the Spring, and Ive been tasked with creating a puzzle game that school children can play with Jibo. In just a few weeks, Ive learned more Unity and Photoshop tricks than I ever have before, and Ive tried to teach myself Unity and Photoshop quite a few times in my life. This is the first UROP where I really feel like Im in my element, and I really hope to work on this project until completion! Machines and appliances sometimes feel like they have their own   personalities. Tell us about the machines you own or interact with. Lets go back to Jibo for this prompt! Despite his WALL-E-esque design, Jibo always surprises me with how lifelike some of his actions are. Ill walk into lab sometimes and be startled by the Jibo that I sit near turning to me and saying hello. My interactions with Jibo are remarkably similar to my interactions with other people, and I think thats really cool and speaks to how well he was designed. And while were on this topic Cynthia Breazeal, the head of the Personal Robots lab, goes a little more in depth about the reasons why we sometimes feel like machines (specifically robots) have feelings and personalities in her TED Talk! How it is that you socialize? (How DO people socialize? MIT prefrosh want   to know (but really)) I’m not really one for going to social events outside East Campus unless there’s a definitive offer of free stuff, so I normally socialize by going to East Campus parties, hanging out in lounges, and recently, playing a lot of Super Smash Ultimate (I main Cloud, because of course I do). But Ive noticed since last semester that its remarkably easy to  not  socialize, which struck me as a surprise, since during freshman year I pretty much did nothing but socializing. Classes have become harder, and time management has become more stressful, and its hard to pset in lounges when you cant hear yourself think and even harder to find the energy to balance all the things youre supposed to do.   I personally believe that if I ever have no time in a day to hang out with friends, Im probably doing too many things, and Im going to try to adhere to this for the rest of the semesters that Ill be here.   Take photos of some places youve fallen asleep on campus. What are the   benefits and drawbacks of being asleep there? I have actually only *intentionally* fallen asleep (morning classes suck eom) in one place on campus: the nap area in 26-110, better known as the Banana Lounge. A picture of the nap area from The Tech article about the Banana Lounge. The nap area is really nice because the lights above it are dimmed, and people generally arent loud in the lounge out of respect to the people who are sleeping. And when youre tired enough, even a yoga mat on the floor and a blanket will be the comfiest thing in the world. Take a photo or a video of your/your profs/your friends pet and tell us   about him/her/it. Bonus points if its a plant or a pet rock. Flora 3 This is my familys cat, Flora! Ive met a lot of cats in East Campus (and in life in general, I guess), but shes still the cutest one Ive ever seen. Thats all the prompts that Ive answered so far. This is actually pretty fun, so Ill probably blog a few more sometime in the next few weeks. Stay tuned for more tidbits about my life! Post Tagged ##StudentStories #advice #blogger bot #music #random stuff

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Ship Of Theseus Paradox Essay - 872 Words

The Ship of Theseus, also known as Theseus’ Paradox, is a thought experiment that questions whether an object is fundamentally the same object after having all of its parts replaced. The story goes that Theseus, a mythical hero of Athens, went on an endeavor to kill the Minotaur who had been harassing the townspeople. When Theseus returned successful, his ship was left in the harbor to commemorate his victory. Consequently, the ship’s planks had deteriorated and were replaced one by one. Thus, the question begs: is this the same ship, or a different one? Throughout this paper I will argue the stance that Theseus’ ship is not the same ship nor has it ever been the same ship the second it left the port in which it was built. Theseus’s Paradox is entirely built upon perception— someone’s view of the ship is different (no matter how minuscule) compared to the next person. Hence why philosophers differ so much on the subject. However, the idea of human perception can be taken into account when discussing this question. Because no answer to this question can be true, is precisely why one answer has to be more true; the ship is different. Take into consideration perception— to apply an identity to an object means that the object was perceived by an observer. The observer selects attributes of its subject in order to serve his/her purpose; the â€Å"attributes† assigned to the subject become the basis for its identity. Therefore, identity has no meaning apart from being a branch ofShow MoreRelatedWhy Is It Our Anatomy That Makes Us Human?802 Words   |  4 Pagesreligions, locations, divorces, and a string of childhood drama I feel I have lived 80 years in my 17 years on this tiny blue sphere. So what makes us, humans. We are never the same from one second to the next. We are the living example of the paradox of Theseus ship, at what point do we stop being who we are and become something new. Is it when we deci de or is the idea of predestination true, making it meaningless what we want to become because it is already predetermined. I feel we are the x thatRead MoreDualism And Materialism By Peter Van Inwagen1968 Words   |  8 Pagesthe human person from the human body: in the case that the human identity is tied up solely in its physical components, the scenario in which nothing existing would simply leave no room for the scenario’s consideration via one’s mind, creating a paradox. Therefore, Descartes’ conclusion that from the mind exists separately from the body lends itself to be the most immediate, logical explanation for human identity. Another essential concept for the understanding of dualism and its superiority overRead MoreWinter Essay2018 Words   |  9 PagesAnticriterialism Theseus’s paradox is used: Theseus was a voyager who had decided to call it a day on exploring. When he retired Theseus wanted to repair his ship and restore it to its former state by replacing all the planks of wood out of which the ship was made out of. When the work was done the ship had new wood and all the old wood was discarded. However when Theseus came to view his boat he said â€Å"well, it looks very nice and all, but I don’t really see in what sense this is MY ship at all - for thisRead MoreTaking a Look at Four-Dimensionalism1200 Words   |  5 Pages Four-dimensionalism is often seen in the field of metaphysics as a strong and sound solution to many puzzles. Whether that’s the Antinomy of Constitution, the Ship of Theseus, or the Paradox of Increase, four-dimensionalism always appears as a probable sol ution. But, four-dimensionalism is not the all-powerful solution it appears to be at first glance. The theory itself has many repercussions if it is taken to be true, leading me to dispute its overall validity. So what exactly is the four-dimensionalRead MoreFigurative Language and the Canterbury Tales13472 Words   |  54 PagesFweet, Bootchee-Fweet. - Saul Bellow 54. oxymoron: the yoking of two terms that are ordinarily contradictory Eg. sweet pain; cheerful pessimist; conspicuous by her absence; thunderous silence; make haste slowly; jumbo shrimp; rational hysteria 55. paradox: a statement that reveals the truth but at first seems contradictory †¢ He is guilty of being innocent. - about Joseph K. in Kafka’s The Trial †¢ The past is the prologue. -Paul Newman 56. paraphrase: a restatement of the content of a poem designedRead MoreGreek Mythology8088 Words   |  33 Pages  which  resulted  from  an  attempt  to  carry  off  the  Lapith   women  at  a  wedding  feast.  This  combat  was  depicted  in  sculpture  on  the  Parthenon,  a  temple   dedicated  to  Athena  in  Athens. The  Sirens   In  Greek  mythology  sirens  were  sea  nymphs  who  lured  sailors  with  their  sweet  singing,  causing  their  ships  to   founder.  Odysseus  overcame  the  temptation  by  tying  himself  to  his  ship’s  mast  as  shown  in  this  painting  by  19th ­Ã‚   century  French  artist  Leon  Belly  in  the  Musà ©e  de  l’Hotel  Sandelin  in  Saint  Omer,  France.   Giraudon/Art  Resource,  NY   The  Sirens

Friday, May 8, 2020

The First Civilizations The Rise Of Civilization

The first civilizations, the foundations for future empires, were all founded and created between 3500 B.C.E. and 500 B.C.E. by groups of nomadic peoples who decided to settle in an area for certain group specific reasons. Some of the main states of the first civilization were Mesopotamia, Norte Chico, Egypt, Indus Valley, China, and Olmec. The second wave civilizations, built between 500 B.C.E. and 500 C.E., included the Persians, the Greeks, Romans, Chinese (Qin and Han), and India (Mauryan and Gupta). The first wave civilizations were sparked by the agricultural movement that led to the settlement of large groups of people in areas that became the cities and states that formed these first civilizations. The rise of civilization led to†¦show more content†¦The key similarities between the two waves of civilizations are important and were continued throughout history even further than the empires of the second wave. These similarities included slavery, treatment of women, a nd the patriarch and monarch rulers; these similarities were intertwined in both waves. Hierarchies of gender declared that women and men were not equal because â€Å"to be gendered as masculine or feminine defines the roles and behavior considered appropriate for men and women in every human community.† The hierarchy of gender led to the creation of patriarchy, the concept that women are lesser or subordinate to men in all aspects of life. This idea of patriarchy meant sons were valued more than daughters, men had more opportunities in society and with jobs, the opportunity to rule, and men were the heads of their households. However, this wasn’t true for every society, even in the first civilizations there were cities and groups of people living within some states that allowed women to do what they wanted to do out in society. The Egyptians were a good example of equality as women were legally viewed equal to men. They were able to own land and slaves, initiate divo rce, and rarely they would reach the position of queen, the most famous being Hatshepsut. On the more extreme side, in ancient Mesopotamia, patriarchy took root quickly in the form of actual written law. The code of Hammurabi was created in 1750 B.C.E. creating very submissive laws forShow MoreRelatedThe First Global Civilization : The Rise And Spread Of Islam1539 Words   |  7 PagesChapter 6: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam Introduction Muslims believed in Allah. This was their God. They only believed in Allah. Muslim’s biggest rivals were Christians. In the seventh century, Muhammed controlled several empires, including Persia, Greece, and Egypt. These empires took him decades to acquire, however. Empires were beginning to spread to places like: -Africa, Asia and Southern Europe. -Central Asia, Western Asia and Southern Asia. -They alsoRead MoreFactors That Affect The Rise And Fall Of Civilizations Essay914 Words   |  4 PagesEffect the Rise and the Fall of Mayan Civilization Area and Egyptian Civilization Area In ancient time, environmental factors were very important. It directed the people to where they should settle to practice agriculture for their living. Among many different important environmental factors such as geography, geology, plant and animal species, agricultural potential, resource abundance, one of the most significants factors which influenced to the rise and the fall of civilizations is climateRead MoreEgypt : The Egyptian Civilization920 Words   |  4 PagesEgypt was never like that today. This essay well talk about the development of Egyptian civilization by explaining the prehistory of Egypt and identifying three cultural developments or political events that were important to the rise of Egyptian civilization. Also, explaining what happened and why it was important or significant to the rise of Egypt. Egypt is known to be one of the longest lasted civilization in the world. It is located in the Nile Valley, in the north east of Africa. Its originsRead MoreUrbanization and State Formation in African Civilizations Essay1295 Words   |  6 PagesUrbanization and State Formation in African Civilizations: When it comes to talking about the ancient African civilizations, both Africans and those who spent their lives studying Africa are aware of how complex and diverse the African precolonial societies really were. However, some still surmise that complex societies failed to develop there, and if there are some that did, they were merely secondary states.1 In the book African Civilizations: An Archaeological Perspective, author GrahamRead MoreA Brief Note On The Civilization And The Indus Valley Civilization860 Words   |  4 Pagessigns of urban life. 2. Indus Valley civilization: The Indus Valley civilization is located in present day Pakistan. This civilization had evidence to provide little indications of no political hierarchy or centralized. 3. Central Asian/ Oxus civilization: A civilization that was economically based on irrigation agriculture and stock raising. This civilization was a focal point of a Eurasian-wide system of intellectual and commercial exchange. This civilization started to fade away by 1700 B.C.ERead MoreThe Collapse Of The Western Civilization994 Words   |  4 Pagesancient civilizations. From 551-479 B.C. with the Chinese, to the nineteenth and early twentieth century with western civilization. Ranging from the collapsing of the Roman and Mayan empires, to the ending of the Byzantine and Inca empires. Historians and architects use ancient readings left behind on stone and walls to gain knowledge about these civilizations. To comprehend these civilizations that were once there and the culture behind them. The virtue and values of these civilizations have hugeRead More Seeds of Trees Essay1172 Words   |  5 Pages According to the encyclopedia Encarta, a civilization is an advanced state of a soc iety possessing historical and cultural unity. There are four early river valley societies that had successfully met the requirements to be called civilizations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India. These four civilizations encompass several similarities as to how they developed, including location, spirituality, governmental structure and forms of written communication. Location played a fundamental role in theRead MoreCause of the Disappearance of the Indus Valley Civilization1675 Words   |  7 PagesThere are many theories as to the cause of the disappearance of the Indus valley civilization, including violent conflict with the Aryans, intermarriage with the Aryans, floods, drought, and/or decline in trade with other societies. Topic 1: On several occasions in class, we discussed the processes of accretion and syncretism. Describe and analyze the cross-cultural influences in a Mediterranean and Indus Valley context. Your essay should provide examples of cultural (remember the components ofRead MoreThe Conflict Between China And The United States1386 Words   |  6 PagesThis foreign policy study will argue in favor of Samuel Huntington’s theory of the â€Å"clash of civilizations† through cultural divisions in the context of the increasing global conflict between China and The United States. In essence, the â€Å"clash of civilizations† between China and the United States will be primarily based on the problem of cultural hegemony in the 21st century struggle for global dominance between these two modern nation states. Huntington’s theory provides ample evidence of the growingRead MoreEnd of Mayan Civilization1143 Words   |  5 PagesEnd of Mayan Civilization Samuel Nathaniel H. Stansbury HUM 111 11/3/2012 The mystery concerning the fundamental explanation for the collapse of the Mayan Civilization has been a major focus for researchers in the fields of anthropology and archeology for a considerable period of time. At the very core of this mystery of the Mayan collapse was the question of how could such a strong, stable civilization that had flourished for approximately twenty-seven hundred years disappear without a clear

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The McDonaldization Free Essays

string(143) " This can be attributed to the fact that they do not pre-make their burgers and leave them under heat lamps to sit like McDonald’s does\." â€Å"McDonaldization† — as used by George Ritzer, author of The McDonaldization of Society — refers to the creation of â€Å"rationalized systems† to perform everyday functions such as food preparation, retail sales, banking, home construction, entertainment, news delivery and so on. He calls it McDonaldization because such methods were used to famous effect by Ray Kroc, who built McDonald’s into a fast-food empire — and because in many people’s minds McDonald’s represents the results, both good and bad, that occur when rationalized systems take over. But has this transition affected other businesses either positively or negatively? Why sure, thanks for asking! I think the best way to examine McDonaldization is to compare the analysis of McDonalds to its effects in the same industry. We will write a custom essay sample on The McDonaldization or any similar topic only for you Order Now The way I plan to do this is to see if the effects of McDonaldization have effect the Wendy†s franchise. The information that I know about this business comes from my brother working for this company for many years and partaking in a triple-cheeseburger or two in my short college career. The way that Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers does business and markets it’s product to consumers is due to the change in our society to where the consumer wants the biggest, fastest, and best product they can get for their money. This change in society can be attributed to a process known as McDonaldization. Although McDonaldization can be applied to many other parts of our society, this paper will focus on its impact on Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers. My belief is that the process of McDonaldization, where the ideology of McDonald’s has come to dominate the world, has caused Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers to emulate McDonald’s style of running a franchised restaurant chain in terms of efficiency, calculability, and control. However, since McDonald’s has become the embodiment of â€Å"fast-food† in our society, Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers has had to change their focus to giving the consumer a higher quality product in a relatively fast amount of time. So, Wendy’s still caters to a McDonaldized society in terms of giving them a meal as fast as possible but making quality their number one priority to give people a viable option from McDonald’s. In addition, as mentioned before, I have used my brother who managed to keep a job at Wendy’s for a short period and observations I gathered while at McDonald’s as further information for this paper. First, before I discuss the impact of McDonaldization on Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers, I will define what McDonaldization is. McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society, as well as, of the rest of the world. George Ritzer created this concept of McDonaldization as a continuation of Max Weber’s theories on bureaucracies (I hope). Max Weber defines a bureaucracy as a large hierarchical organization that is governed by formal rules and regulations and has a clear specification of work tasks. Its three main characteristics are that it has a division of labor, hierarchy of authority, and an impartial and impersonal application of rules and policies (see what I got from Sociological Theory). Thus, from that definition of a bureaucracy, one would conclude that both McDonald’s and Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers are bureaucracies. The fact that both restaurants are bureaucracies is supported by the fact that each assigns workers to a specific job where each worker individually contributes to the overall success of the restaurant by doing his or her job. For example, workers at each restaurant could be assigned to working the grill, making fries, working the front register, or taking orders at the drive-thru window. Both restaurants have a hierarchy of authority from worker, crew chief, shift manager, salary manager to owner of the store. Also, each restaurant enforces an impartial and impersonal application of rules and policies. Both McDonald’s and Wendy’s have standard, impersonal greetings at the register and at the drive-thru window. The exception when this impersonal attitude towards the customer is changed is when a worker knows the customer outside the restaurant. In this case, the worker will probably ask their acquaintance how they are doing or what they are up to. The worker might even throw in an extra cheeseburger that a regular customer might not get. Despite this exception where standardization is broken, both these restaurants have become bureaucracies because they are the most efficient means of managing large groups of people. That leaves one to wonder why the process of McDonaldization has been so successful for both companies. The first reason is that it offers efficiency where consumers know that it means the quickest way to get from one point to another. In the case of McDonald’s, it offers the best available way to get from being hungry to being full. This is so important in today’s society because so many people are in a rush to get from one place to another. Therefore, the quick, efficient setup of McDonald’s allows consumers to eat a fast-food meal without having to leave their car. On the other hand, Wendy’s strives for as efficient service as possible without affecting the quality of their product. This is because McDonald’s already has imprinted on people’s minds throughout the many years of its existence that they will get the same burger each visit in the quickest amount of time. They reinforce this idea on the minds of consumers through advertising and other clever tools. For example, on every McDonald’s sign is a tally of how many people in the world have eaten there, which is currently at 99 billion served. The use of this sign reinforces to people that McDonald’s is an icon in our society and many people will equate that large number with McDonald’s being the best restaurant. As a result, Wendy’s has tried to make quality their number one priority but with no serious deficiencies in the speed of their product. This can be attributed to the fact that they do not pre-make their burgers and leave them under heat lamps to sit like McDonald’s does. You read "The McDonaldization" in category "Essay examples" Instead, they have their staff assembled to make the burger as the customer orders it. This is an especially important benefit because many people like to â€Å"customize† their burger and the process that Wendy’s uses allow them to do that. This allows them to target another group of society, which McDonald’s product doesn’t appeal to. For example, older people who would rather sit down and have a quality meal would most likely rather go to Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers. Even, the name of Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers suggests that their style is more like how things used to be done many decades ago in terms of making quality the number one priority for a restaurant. Therefore, they would provide an alternative for people who were not interested in getting a burger that has been slopped together and sitting under a heat lamp for an hour. This would be reflected in which demographic of people each restaurant targeted. McDonald’s traditionally has targeted families as their key demographic but recently they have shifted to make their product more appealing to teenagers as well. This can best be demonstrated in their new style commercials that use many young adults and refers to McDonald’s as â€Å"Mickey D’s† as a hip place to hang out. So, for young people who are in a rush to get from place to place, McDonald’s provides a fast, cheap meal that they can eat on the run. On the other hand, Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers targets people who aren’t in such a rush and would rather sit down and eat a slow, relaxing meal (is this ageism). They still cater to those who are in a rush by offering a drive-thru. However, they know that most of their business will come from people looking for a quality alternative to McDonald’s. Another aspect of McDonaldization that has made both companies successful is calculability. This is where each restaurant puts an emphasis on quantitative aspects of products sold like portion size and cost. For example, McDonald’s has burgers like the â€Å"Quarter Pounder† and â€Å"Big Mac† while Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburger has burgers like the â€Å"Double Bacon Cheeseburger†. This use of descriptive adjectives suggests to the consumer that they are getting the most amount of food for their money. Both McDonald’s and Wendy’s have the option to â€Å"Supersize† or â€Å"Biggiesize† an order. This makes the companies successful in our society because of our belief that bigger is better. Finally, both companies use control, especially through the substitution of non-human for human technology. For both companies that means using soft drink machines that automatically shuts off when the glass is full, french-fry machines that rings and lifts itself out of the oil when the fries are done, and the preprogrammed cash registers that eliminate the need for the cashier to calculate any prices. The main reason that this is done is because,† [people are] The great source of uncertainty, unpredictability and inefficiency in any rationalizing system. Thus, by increasing control, through increased mechanization, both companies maintain a better control over the entire organization. Also, this leads to employees not having to think about their job because the tasks they are asked to do are very repetitive. In conclusion, it is obvious that both restaurants have adopted a style of running their restaurants that makes them successful. McDonald’s style is to give the public the same burger that they have always had so that they can come to depend that they will get the same meal as they did last time. They have been a pioneer in the fast-food industry and the model that other restaurants try to imitate. On the other hand, Wendy’s style is to make a quality product that reminds people of the â€Å"good old days†. They have been directly influenced by McDonald’s in terms of how to run their fast-food restaurant to maximize speed and efficiency. However, since Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers would not have a chance of competing with McDonald’s at their own game, they have developed their own niche in the market of making a quality product efficiently. What concerns me is the way these companies are phasing out the roles of their employees to the point where they are doing nothing but mindless, repetitive tasks. To me, the consequence of this will be that someday all human workers will be replaced because it is more efficient for machines to do the work. So, although McDonaldization has made both these companies very successful, there is a very serious potential downside that could have an effect on everyone. Now there is no doubt that this text can be read on a number of different levels, some of which are far more satisfactory than others. Ritzer is clearly an accessible and engaging writer. For an undergraduate audience, which is unfamiliar with the language, and indeed, critical project of radical social theory, this text provides a worthy, and indeed somewhat enjoyable introduction. Keep in mind, though, that those four principles are not necessarily pursued from the point of view of the consumer. Efficiency, for example, may entail the placing of great inconveniences upon a consumer for the sake of efficient management. Calculability may involve hiding certain information from the consumer. Predictability and control may involve a company’s ability to predict and control consumer behavior, not the consumer’s ability to predict what kind of product or control what kind of service he gets. Ritzer calls such breakdowns â€Å"the irrationality of rationalization. † Even so, there is a great perception among American consumers in particular that McDonaldized systems succeed from their own point of view based on those criteria: the systems are perceived to be more efficient, the benefits calculable, the goods and services predictable. But it’s rare that the consumer will ever feel himself to be more in control. McDonaldized systems take away a great deal of consumer autonomy (which I love), making decisions and implementing processes on a mass-market scale with little room for individual involvement on the part of a single customer or even a single store or plant manager. The benefit of control is one that accrues exclusively to the company. Regardless of who benefits or to what extent, the universal result is homogenization. Rationalized systems have a pronounced tendency to squash-individual tastes, niche markets, small-scale enterprise and personalized customer service. Differences are leveled, wrinkles smoothed, knots cut off — convenience at the expense of character. An overwhelming normlessness develops, along with a decrease in responsiveness among the people of our society that are involved. The system that seeks to mimic a machine becomes a machine, incapable of making exceptions or taking risks. McDonaldization is taking over our society. In the future, our wishes of fast, more efficient services will be fulfilled; but whom in the world will we ever talk too? How to cite The McDonaldization, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities Essay Example

Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities Paper Chapter I Introduction Almost in all times and among all nations which have reached a sufficient level of cultural development, there have always been fraternal associations formed for higher purposes. The development of Fraternities can be traced from trade unions or guilds that emerged in England. These guilds were set up to protect and care for their members at a time when there was no welfare state, trade unions or National Health Service (Sarmiento, 2011). Various secret signs and handshakes were created to serve as proof of their membership allowing them to visit guilds in distant places that are associated with the guild they belong. Others even modify their body like piercing, tattoo, and burns. †The awakening of the Filipinos to a deep sense of injustice being practice upon them by the colonizers was the introduction of fraternal societies in the islands, and the influence of higher education obtain by those of means to schools of Hongkong and other old-world countries† (Sarmiento, 2011). Nowadays fraternities and sororities  exist for  high school  students as well as college students. Like their college counterparts, most have  Greek letter  names. There are local high school fraternities and sororities with one or two chapters, many of the local chapters of these national fraternities were not tied to or affiliated with individual  high schools  but were instead area based, often drawing membership from multiple  high schools  in a given area. The high-school fraternity has become a serious problem through the years. We will write a custom essay sample on Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer These organizations have sprung into the schools even in the watchful eyes of the school administrators who suddenly felt the need to act with all forces not easy to control, and remove from school. With the DepEd Order no. 6 series of 1954, which prohibits hazing in schools, and DepEd Order no. 20 series of 1991, which prohibits the operation of fraternities and sororities in public and private elementary and secondary schools and with laid out sanctions, like suspensions and expulsion, administrators and school authorities are aiming to eradicate these organizations. The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others (Erikson, E. H. ). As they make the transition from childhood to adulthood, adolescents ponder the roles they will play in the adult world. Initially, they are apt to experience some role confusion- mixed ideas and feelings about the specific ways in which they will fit into society- and may experiment with a variety of behaviors and activities (e. g. tinkering with cars, baby-sitting for neighbors, affiliating with certain political or religious groups). Human beings are social animals; they develop and mature in dyadic, small group and other group contexts over a long period. Thus, it is not surprising that a growing body of evidence suggests that people are healthier and happier when they experience social belonging. Adolescents participate in a complex social environment populated by many friendship groups, cliques, and crowds. In the last few years, there have been many circumstances in school that are fraternity related. Various steps are taken, like investigation to suspected frat members. The school further promotes co-curricular and extra-curricular organizations and activities that can serve as more wholesome and productive alternatives to fraternities, sororities and like organizations. Various clubs were introduced by the school administrator to stir up students’ interest in different fields and divert them to a more productive group. This study hopes to shed light on old but under-researched phenomenon in the Philippines and based on the results, develop program for interventions which is non-existent at the moment. Consequently, this study will help open a whole new of world of understanding on the subject of fraternities and sororities and its implications to the future, since only few know about these groups. Lastly, the study aims to fill the gap in current research literature in the Philippines on fraternities and sororities. It hopes to provide insight into modern conceptualizations and definitions of fraternities and sororities. This information may be used in future research on fraternities and sororities and for effecting necessary changes on government institutions’ policies that govern fraternities and sororities. Statement of the Problem This study explores, describes and analyzes the lived experiences of high school fraternity members. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions: 1. What significant reason motivates high school students to join fraternities and sororities? 2. What insights, meaning and inspiration for fraternities and sororities members emerge from these experiences? 3. What do these insights reveal about their involvement in these organizations? 4. What counseling program can be designed to assist the needs of frat and not frat members? Theoretical/Conceptual Framework This study is anchored on theory of belongingness by Baumeister and Leary’s (1995) individuals have an evolved, and robust, need for closeness, and social belonging. This theory suggests that natural selection favored individuals who maintained close bonds with groups because this attachment provided security, and facilitated reproduction. Man is a social being in he has to be with others in order to cope with this pass paced world. Conceptual Framework Need to Belong Friends Belongingness Interventions Fraternity/Sorority The need to belong. As social being, teenagers as participants study seek to belong to, or identify oneself with others. Friends teenagers often be in the fill the gap if not satisfied in home Scope and Limitation The research is concerned with exploring and probing the lived experiences of 7-10 high school fraternity/sorority members in Canlaon City. The participants in the study are high school students currently enrolled during the school year 2011-2012 and are currently fraternity/sorority member. The participants are at least 12 years old at the time of the study. The study will use in-depth interview. This study will be conducted in public and private high schools Canlaon City for the school year 2010-2011. Significance of the Study The results of the study intend to benefit the following sectors: Educators. The study may spawn valuable insights concerning the real needs of this sector in educational institutions. This study may provide hard facts on their actual needs and the information gathered may be valuable in the school’s attempt to understand them more fully and to help provide opportunities to address their pertinent needs in and outside of the school. This group is expected to benefit directly from the actual data generated in this study. School Administrators. The information gathered in this research may provide baseline data for the administrators to plan and create a more concrete program to address the needs of the fraternity and sorority members. Since this study is a first-of-its-kind in the city, the researcher expects to provide a better and more comprehensive program in the future that addresses the actual needs of the students. Guidance Counselors. This research aims to provide baseline data that will help in the formulation of appropriate guidance programs to answer the need of the students and will help them in their quest to belong. Future researchers. This research is hoped to lay down a solid foundation on the needs of students who join fraternity and sororities for future researchers who may want to further investigate the topic and explore areas not covered by the present study. Furthermore, since local data on fraternity and sorority is scarce, it is the hope of the researcher to contribute to the local literature on the subject to benefit those who would wish to delve deeper into the topic in the future. The Government, Organization Leaders and Policy-Makers. The focus of this study is an attempt to provide new knowledge to leaders of organizations, government and policy-makers. The data can help enhance and develop strategies implementing specialized training, support systems, programs and laws that might protect the welfare of our students who are still in their teenage years. Definition of Terms In order to facilitate proper understanding of the context of how they are used in the study, the following terms are defined conceptually, operationally or both. Age – conceptually and operationally defined as the length of time that somebody or something has existed, usually expressed in years (Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009.  © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. ) Counseling Program – a plan of action that will be the product of the results of this study Family Background – whether participant of the study is living with parents, mother only, father only, uncle/aunt, grandparents, and relatives. Fraternity/Sorority – a group of individuals formed with the spirit of brotherly love Fraternity/Sorority Member – are the participants of the study, they are self confessed affiliates of high school fraternities. Gangs – group of teenagers who perform rights often to harm to the school and society Year Level – current educational status of the participant. Chapter II Review of Related Literature The purpose of this study is to see the real picture of high school fraternities and sororities in high school. This chapter presents the review of related studies that resembles in any way of this study. Several related literature and studies are related to this study. One of these studies is the study made by Timothy E. Bleeker and Sarah K. Murnen (2005) on fraternity membership, the display of degrading sexual images of women and rape myth acceptance wherein it was found out that fraternity men had significantly more images of women displayed in their rooms and that images were rated significantly more degrading than those in the rooms of non-fraternity men. Fraternity men were found to have significantly higher scores on rape supportive attitude scale (RSA). Carolyn Kolb (2008) cites that high school fraternities like the college level groups, have Greek letter name, a motto usually related to the name initials, secret rites and handshakes and a self generating membership: new members have to be voted in by the current members. Moreover Micheal T. Gibbons (2006) in his article â€Å"The Idea of Fraternity Revisited†, mentioned that the aspiration and drive for fraternity are indicated throughout the political history of human beings. An article of Jon Marcus (2004) discusses the controversy over fraternities and sororities in U. S. universities. It is being debated whether fraternities and sororities should be banned due to their involvement in sexism, alcohol abuse, hazing among others. Fraternities here in the Philippines have a â€Å"stigma† according to Juan Dela Cruz (2008). That is, people think that fraternities have nothing to do any good for you. It involves in frat wars, murders and any kind of crimes. He also added that being a fratmen, especially when you are member of a big fraternity is risky and dangerous. It is true that these big frats made services to people. Another research conducted by Brett Wells and Daniel P. Corts (2008) explored on implicit attitudes towards members of social fraternities and sororities. Members of Greek organizations showed preferential responses towards Greek groups over academic and service groups. These patterns of results suggest that many independent students harbor ill feelings towards sorority and fraternity members, and it is possible that the attitudes are stronger than reported typical. Eric A. Storch and Jason B. Storch (2002) examined the relationship between membership in fraternity or sorority and the frequency of academic dishonesty. Findings revealed that (1) members of fraternities and sororities reported higher rates of academic dishonesty as compared to non-members, and (2) the degree of involvement in fraternity or sorority sponsored activities was positively associated with academic dishonesty. Arsenio Baquilid (2010) emphasized that a fraternity or sorority is a choice of lifestyle for a lifetime. It has a strong influence on ones personality. He also stressed the truth that there are fraternities that pride themselves on academic performance, extra-curricular activities, leadership development, community service and may other achievements. The organization is a venue where a person can practice the full development of an integrated personality. However Ben O’Donnell (2009) argues that, despite negative stereotypes and news stories, fraternities can make a positive contribution to campus life. He notes that fraternity friendships create lifelong bonds between members, expose people to a variety of personality types because of the necessary diversity in any group and offer real diversity in fraternities at his alma mater, Dartmouth College. Juan Dela Cruz (2008) also included in his article that fraternity also made lot of services every year like outreach program. They adopt a baranggay and help the people there. They educate the children and give them goods. Through all the studies showed no concrete evidence on the concrete experiences and purpose of fraternities and sororities. The researcher persisted in conducting this study on the phenomenological study on the lives of high school students involving fraternities and sororities membership: Basis for a Counseling Program. Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the research design, the participants of the study, the sampling procedure, the statistical tool, the data gathering procedure and analyzing the data. The Research Design The study mainly uses the qualitative-phenomenological approach in research. The study will use the descriptive type of research methodology as to the nature of the problem. The researcher will employ the field survey and the phenomenological in-depth interviewing methods. The qualitative approach used in-depth and key informant interviews with high school fraternity/sorority members to determine their experiences in the organization. The Participants of the Study The participants of this study are 7-10 high school students who are members of fraternity and sorority in Canlaon City. The age range will be 12-20 years old. The participant will be a mixture of frat members from different organizations. In order to protect their identity and ensure confidentiality, the participants were assigned pseudonyms (quoted in parenthesis). These were the names consistently used all throughout the paper when there was a need for the researcher to refer to the participants. The Sampling Design Due to the sensitivity of the study, the researcher conducted a pre-survey. The study employs purposeful sampling in identifying the participants. The researcher selects individuals and sites for study because they can purposefully inform an understanding of the research problem and the central phenomenon under study (Creswell, 2007). A Snowball or Chain sampling will also be used by which it identifies cases of interest from people who know people who know people who know what cases are information-rich, that is, good examples for study, good interview subjects (Patton, 1990). More specifically, the study uses criterion sampling wherein only the participants who met the criteria set by the researcher were involved in the study. The criteria used are the following: (1) first, participants are high school students enrolled in the current year and (2) second, they are members of fraternity/sorority for at least 6 months prior to the interview; and (3) third, they are 12 to 20 years old. For phenomenological studies, the use of small number of participants is justifiable due to the nature of the data-gathering procedure Research Instruments An interview guide will be used by the researcher to gather data. The researcher himself will make his own questions and will not rely on pre-prepared questionnaire to gather information. Guided by an interview protocol he will gather data and the flow of the interview will largely depend on his skill in asking the right questions, probing for depth and eliciting the necessary responses from the participants. Validity of the Research Instrument As suggested by Creswell (2007), the following validation techniques will be utilized: Firstly, the use of external audits (Erlanson et al. 1993; Lincoln and Guba, 1985; Merriam, 1988; Miles and Huberman, 1994 cited in Creswell, 2007) allows an external consultant, the auditor, to examine both process and the product of the account, assessing their accuracy. The auditor should have no connection to the study. This means that the open-ended questions for the in-depth interview will be subjected to face and content validity by seeking the expert suggestion of research practitioners engaging in qualitative research in order to ensure that the questions would gather the true essence and meaning of the participants’ experiences. Secondly, the use of the commonest forms of triangulation is to combine interviews with observation. Observation will test and fill out accounts given in interviews, and vice versa (Pratt, 2006). Thirdly, considerable effort was made in order to establish trust by building rapport with the participants through prolonged engagement, immersion and persistent observation. It also involves checking for misinformation that stems from distortions introduced by the researcher or informants (Ely, et al, 1991; Erlandson, Harris, Skipper and Allen, 1993; Glesne and Peskin, 1992; Lincoln and Guba, 1995; Merriam, 1998, cited in Creswell, 2007). Fourthly, clarifying researcher bias from the outset of the study is important so that the reader understands the researcher’s position and any biases or assumptions that impact the inquiry (Merriam, 1998, cited in Creswell, 2007). In this clarification, the researcher comments on pass experiences, biases, prejudices, and orientations that have likely shape the interpretation and approach t the study. Reliability of Research Instruments In qualitative research, reliability or consistency of responses of the participants is established using a good quality recorder in order to capture the details of the in-depth interview. In this case the researcher will use the recording function of a cellular phone. The recorded responses will be transcribed in order to see the nuances of the responses, the significant verbal and nonverbal cues, including the respondents’ tone and volume, the variations, pauses and the nuances of their responses. The stability of these responses will be the hallmark of a reliable instrument. The researcher will also use a detailed field notes to indicate of a good reliability index in qualitative research. This can be achieved by a good and competent way of transcribing the data gathered during the interview, to be conducted several times until the necessary information related to the inquiry is saturated. Data Gathering Procedure The following procedures will be observed during data gathering. The researcher will conduct a pre-survey to determine who are willing to participate in the study. Those who will agree to be participants of the study will be ask to refer others who are members of fraternity. Statistical Treatment of Data The study will use simple percentage to show the participants profile like gender, age, year level, family background and the recruitment procedure. Other findings will be in a descriptive type. Bibliography Baquilid, A. U. (2010, June). Being A Fraternity Member: Advantages and Disadvantages. http://arseniobaquilid23. blog. com/ Baumeister, R. F. , Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human emotion. Psychological  Bulletin, 117,  497-529. Bleecker, T. E. , Murnen, S. K. 2005, October). Fraternity Membership, the Display of Degrading Sexual Images of Women, and Rape Myth Acceptance. 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Qualitative Research.  © P Woods, Faculty of Education, University of Plymouth, 2006