Friday, May 22, 2020
The Ship of Theseus, also known as TheseusÃ¢â¬â¢ Paradox, is a thought experiment that questions whether an object is fundamentally the same object after having all of its parts replaced. The story goes that Theseus, a mythical hero of Athens, went on an endeavor to kill the Minotaur who had been harassing the townspeople. When Theseus returned successful, his ship was left in the harbor to commemorate his victory. Consequently, the shipÃ¢â¬â¢s planks had deteriorated and were replaced one by one. Thus, the question begs: is this the same ship, or a different one? Throughout this paper I will argue the stance that TheseusÃ¢â¬â¢ ship is not the same ship nor has it ever been the same ship the second it left the port in which it was built. TheseusÃ¢â¬â¢s Paradox is entirely built upon perceptionÃ¢â¬â someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the ship is different (no matter how minuscule) compared to the next person. Hence why philosophers differ so much on the subject. However, the idea of human perception can be taken into account when discussing this question. Because no answer to this question can be true, is precisely why one answer has to be more true; the ship is different. Take into consideration perceptionÃ¢â¬â to apply an identity to an object means that the object was perceived by an observer. The observer selects attributes of its subject in order to serve his/her purpose; the Ã¢â¬Å"attributesÃ¢â¬ assigned to the subject become the basis for its identity. Therefore, identity has no meaning apart from being a branch ofShow MoreRelatedWhy Is It Our Anatomy That Makes Us Human?802 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreligions, locations, divorces, and a string of childhood drama I feel I have lived 80 years in my 17 years on this tiny blue sphere. So what makes us, humans. We are never the same from one second to the next. We are the living example of the paradox of Theseus ship, at what point do we stop being who we are and become something new. Is it when we deci de or is the idea of predestination true, making it meaningless what we want to become because it is already predetermined. I feel we are the x thatRead MoreDualism And Materialism By Peter Van Inwagen1968 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe human person from the human body: in the case that the human identity is tied up solely in its physical components, the scenario in which nothing existing would simply leave no room for the scenarioÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration via oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, creating a paradox. Therefore, DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ conclusion that from the mind exists separately from the body lends itself to be the most immediate, logical explanation for human identity. Another essential concept for the understanding of dualism and its superiority overRead MoreWinter Essay2018 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAnticriterialism TheseusÃ¢â¬â¢s paradox is used: Theseus was a voyager who had decided to call it a day on exploring. When he retired Theseus wanted to repair his ship and restore it to its former state by replacing all the planks of wood out of which the ship was made out of. When the work was done the ship had new wood and all the old wood was discarded. However when Theseus came to view his boat he said Ã¢â¬Å"well, it looks very nice and all, but I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really see in what sense this is MY ship at all - for thisRead MoreTaking a Look at Four-Dimensionalism1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Four-dimensionalism is often seen in the field of metaphysics as a strong and sound solution to many puzzles. Whether thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the Antinomy of Constitution, the Ship of Theseus, or the Paradox of Increase, four-dimensionalism always appears as a probable sol ution. But, four-dimensionalism is not the all-powerful solution it appears to be at first glance. The theory itself has many repercussions if it is taken to be true, leading me to dispute its overall validity. So what exactly is the four-dimensionalRead MoreFigurative Language and the Canterbury Tales13472 Words Ã |Ã 54 PagesFweet, Bootchee-Fweet. - Saul Bellow 54. oxymoron: the yoking of two terms that are ordinarily contradictory Eg. sweet pain; cheerful pessimist; conspicuous by her absence; thunderous silence; make haste slowly; jumbo shrimp; rational hysteria 55. paradox: a statement that reveals the truth but at first seems contradictory Ã¢â¬ ¢ He is guilty of being innocent. - about Joseph K. in KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Trial Ã¢â¬ ¢ The past is the prologue. -Paul Newman 56. paraphrase: a restatement of the content of a poem designedRead MoreGreek Mythology8088 Words Ã |Ã 33 PagesÃ whichÃ resultedÃ fromÃ anÃ attemptÃ toÃ carryÃ offÃ theÃ LapithÃ womenÃ atÃ aÃ weddingÃ feast.Ã ThisÃ combatÃ wasÃ depictedÃ inÃ sculptureÃ onÃ theÃ Parthenon,Ã aÃ templeÃ dedicatedÃ toÃ AthenaÃ inÃ Athens. TheÃ SirensÃ InÃ GreekÃ mythologyÃ sirensÃ wereÃ seaÃ nymphsÃ whoÃ luredÃ sailorsÃ withÃ theirÃ sweetÃ singing,Ã causingÃ theirÃ shipsÃ toÃ founder.Ã OdysseusÃ overcameÃ theÃ temptationÃ byÃ tyingÃ himselfÃ toÃ hisÃ shipÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ mastÃ asÃ shownÃ inÃ thisÃ paintingÃ byÃ 19thÃ Ã centuryÃ FrenchÃ artistÃ LeonÃ BellyÃ inÃ theÃ MusÃ ©eÃ deÃ lÃ¢â¬â¢HotelÃ SandelinÃ inÃ SaintÃ Omer,Ã France.Ã Giraudon/ArtÃ Resource,Ã NYÃ TheÃ Sirens
Friday, May 8, 2020
The first civilizations, the foundations for future empires, were all founded and created between 3500 B.C.E. and 500 B.C.E. by groups of nomadic peoples who decided to settle in an area for certain group specific reasons. Some of the main states of the first civilization were Mesopotamia, Norte Chico, Egypt, Indus Valley, China, and Olmec. The second wave civilizations, built between 500 B.C.E. and 500 C.E., included the Persians, the Greeks, Romans, Chinese (Qin and Han), and India (Mauryan and Gupta). The first wave civilizations were sparked by the agricultural movement that led to the settlement of large groups of people in areas that became the cities and states that formed these first civilizations. The rise of civilization led toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The key similarities between the two waves of civilizations are important and were continued throughout history even further than the empires of the second wave. These similarities included slavery, treatment of women, a nd the patriarch and monarch rulers; these similarities were intertwined in both waves. Hierarchies of gender declared that women and men were not equal because Ã¢â¬Å"to be gendered as masculine or feminine defines the roles and behavior considered appropriate for men and women in every human community.Ã¢â¬ The hierarchy of gender led to the creation of patriarchy, the concept that women are lesser or subordinate to men in all aspects of life. This idea of patriarchy meant sons were valued more than daughters, men had more opportunities in society and with jobs, the opportunity to rule, and men were the heads of their households. However, this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t true for every society, even in the first civilizations there were cities and groups of people living within some states that allowed women to do what they wanted to do out in society. The Egyptians were a good example of equality as women were legally viewed equal to men. They were able to own land and slaves, initiate divo rce, and rarely they would reach the position of queen, the most famous being Hatshepsut. On the more extreme side, in ancient Mesopotamia, patriarchy took root quickly in the form of actual written law. The code of Hammurabi was created in 1750 B.C.E. creating very submissive laws forShow MoreRelatedThe First Global Civilization : The Rise And Spread Of Islam1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChapter 6: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam Introduction Muslims believed in Allah. This was their God. They only believed in Allah. MuslimÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest rivals were Christians. In the seventh century, Muhammed controlled several empires, including Persia, Greece, and Egypt. These empires took him decades to acquire, however. Empires were beginning to spread to places like: -Africa, Asia and Southern Europe. -Central Asia, Western Asia and Southern Asia. -They alsoRead MoreFactors That Affect The Rise And Fall Of Civilizations Essay914 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEffect the Rise and the Fall of Mayan Civilization Area and Egyptian Civilization Area In ancient time, environmental factors were very important. It directed the people to where they should settle to practice agriculture for their living. Among many different important environmental factors such as geography, geology, plant and animal species, agricultural potential, resource abundance, one of the most significants factors which influenced to the rise and the fall of civilizations is climateRead MoreEgypt : The Egyptian Civilization920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEgypt was never like that today. This essay well talk about the development of Egyptian civilization by explaining the prehistory of Egypt and identifying three cultural developments or political events that were important to the rise of Egyptian civilization. Also, explaining what happened and why it was important or significant to the rise of Egypt. Egypt is known to be one of the longest lasted civilization in the world. It is located in the Nile Valley, in the north east of Africa. Its originsRead MoreUrbanization and State Formation in African Civilizations Essay1295 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUrbanization and State Formation in African Civilizations: When it comes to talking about the ancient African civilizations, both Africans and those who spent their lives studying Africa are aware of how complex and diverse the African precolonial societies really were. However, some still surmise that complex societies failed to develop there, and if there are some that did, they were merely secondary states.1 In the book African Civilizations: An Archaeological Perspective, author GrahamRead MoreA Brief Note On The Civilization And The Indus Valley Civilization860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessigns of urban life. 2. Indus Valley civilization: The Indus Valley civilization is located in present day Pakistan. This civilization had evidence to provide little indications of no political hierarchy or centralized. 3. Central Asian/ Oxus civilization: A civilization that was economically based on irrigation agriculture and stock raising. This civilization was a focal point of a Eurasian-wide system of intellectual and commercial exchange. This civilization started to fade away by 1700 B.C.ERead MoreThe Collapse Of The Western Civilization994 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesancient civilizations. From 551-479 B.C. with the Chinese, to the nineteenth and early twentieth century with western civilization. Ranging from the collapsing of the Roman and Mayan empires, to the ending of the Byzantine and Inca empires. Historians and architects use ancient readings left behind on stone and walls to gain knowledge about these civilizations. To comprehend these civilizations that were once there and the culture behind them. The virtue and values of these civilizations have hugeRead More Seeds of Trees Essay1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages According to the encyclopedia Encarta, a civilization is an advanced state of a soc iety possessing historical and cultural unity. There are four early river valley societies that had successfully met the requirements to be called civilizations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India. These four civilizations encompass several similarities as to how they developed, including location, spirituality, governmental structure and forms of written communication. Location played a fundamental role in theRead MoreCause of the Disappearance of the Indus Valley Civilization1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThere are many theories as to the cause of the disappearance of the Indus valley civilization, including violent conflict with the Aryans, intermarriage with the Aryans, floods, drought, and/or decline in trade with other societies. Topic 1: On several occasions in class, we discussed the processes of accretion and syncretism. Describe and analyze the cross-cultural influences in a Mediterranean and Indus Valley context. Your essay should provide examples of cultural (remember the components ofRead MoreThe Conflict Between China And The United States1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis foreign policy study will argue in favor of Samuel HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the Ã¢â¬Å"clash of civilizationsÃ¢â¬ through cultural divisions in the context of the increasing global conflict between China and The United States. In essence, the Ã¢â¬Å"clash of civilizationsÃ¢â¬ between China and the United States will be primarily based on the problem of cultural hegemony in the 21st century struggle for global dominance between these two modern nation states. HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory provides ample evidence of the growingRead MoreEnd of Mayan Civilization1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnd of Mayan Civilization Samuel Nathaniel H. Stansbury HUM 111 11/3/2012 The mystery concerning the fundamental explanation for the collapse of the Mayan Civilization has been a major focus for researchers in the fields of anthropology and archeology for a considerable period of time. At the very core of this mystery of the Mayan collapse was the question of how could such a strong, stable civilization that had flourished for approximately twenty-seven hundred years disappear without a clear
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(143) " This can be attributed to the fact that they do not pre-make their burgers and leave them under heat lamps to sit like McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s does\." Ã¢â¬Å"McDonaldizationÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â as used by George Ritzer, author of The McDonaldization of Society Ã¢â¬â refers to the creation of Ã¢â¬Å"rationalized systemsÃ¢â¬ to perform everyday functions such as food preparation, retail sales, banking, home construction, entertainment, news delivery and so on. He calls it McDonaldization because such methods were used to famous effect by Ray Kroc, who built McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s into a fast-food empire Ã¢â¬â and because in many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s represents the results, both good and bad, that occur when rationalized systems take over. But has this transition affected other businesses either positively or negatively? Why sure, thanks for asking! I think the best way to examine McDonaldization is to compare the analysis of McDonalds to its effects in the same industry. We will write a custom essay sample on The McDonaldization or any similar topic only for you Order Now The way I plan to do this is to see if the effects of McDonaldization have effect the WendyÃ¢â¬ s franchise. The information that I know about this business comes from my brother working for this company for many years and partaking in a triple-cheeseburger or two in my short college career. The way that WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers does business and markets itÃ¢â¬â¢s product to consumers is due to the change in our society to where the consumer wants the biggest, fastest, and best product they can get for their money. This change in society can be attributed to a process known as McDonaldization. Although McDonaldization can be applied to many other parts of our society, this paper will focus on its impact on WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers. My belief is that the process of McDonaldization, where the ideology of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has come to dominate the world, has caused WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers to emulate McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s style of running a franchised restaurant chain in terms of efficiency, calculability, and control. However, since McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has become the embodiment of Ã¢â¬Å"fast-foodÃ¢â¬ in our society, WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers has had to change their focus to giving the consumer a higher quality product in a relatively fast amount of time. So, WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s still caters to a McDonaldized society in terms of giving them a meal as fast as possible but making quality their number one priority to give people a viable option from McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. In addition, as mentioned before, I have used my brother who managed to keep a job at WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s for a short period and observations I gathered while at McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s as further information for this paper. First, before I discuss the impact of McDonaldization on WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers, I will define what McDonaldization is. McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society, as well as, of the rest of the world. George Ritzer created this concept of McDonaldization as a continuation of Max WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s theories on bureaucracies (I hope). Max Weber defines a bureaucracy as a large hierarchical organization that is governed by formal rules and regulations and has a clear specification of work tasks. Its three main characteristics are that it has a division of labor, hierarchy of authority, and an impartial and impersonal application of rules and policies (see what I got from Sociological Theory). Thus, from that definition of a bureaucracy, one would conclude that both McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers are bureaucracies. The fact that both restaurants are bureaucracies is supported by the fact that each assigns workers to a specific job where each worker individually contributes to the overall success of the restaurant by doing his or her job. For example, workers at each restaurant could be assigned to working the grill, making fries, working the front register, or taking orders at the drive-thru window. Both restaurants have a hierarchy of authority from worker, crew chief, shift manager, salary manager to owner of the store. Also, each restaurant enforces an impartial and impersonal application of rules and policies. Both McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s have standard, impersonal greetings at the register and at the drive-thru window. The exception when this impersonal attitude towards the customer is changed is when a worker knows the customer outside the restaurant. In this case, the worker will probably ask their acquaintance how they are doing or what they are up to. The worker might even throw in an extra cheeseburger that a regular customer might not get. Despite this exception where standardization is broken, both these restaurants have become bureaucracies because they are the most efficient means of managing large groups of people. That leaves one to wonder why the process of McDonaldization has been so successful for both companies. The first reason is that it offers efficiency where consumers know that it means the quickest way to get from one point to another. In the case of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, it offers the best available way to get from being hungry to being full. This is so important in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society because so many people are in a rush to get from one place to another. Therefore, the quick, efficient setup of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s allows consumers to eat a fast-food meal without having to leave their car. On the other hand, WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s strives for as efficient service as possible without affecting the quality of their product. This is because McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s already has imprinted on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds throughout the many years of its existence that they will get the same burger each visit in the quickest amount of time. They reinforce this idea on the minds of consumers through advertising and other clever tools. For example, on every McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s sign is a tally of how many people in the world have eaten there, which is currently at 99 billion served. The use of this sign reinforces to people that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is an icon in our society and many people will equate that large number with McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s being the best restaurant. As a result, WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s has tried to make quality their number one priority but with no serious deficiencies in the speed of their product. This can be attributed to the fact that they do not pre-make their burgers and leave them under heat lamps to sit like McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s does. You read "The McDonaldization" in category "Essay examples" Instead, they have their staff assembled to make the burger as the customer orders it. This is an especially important benefit because many people like to Ã¢â¬Å"customizeÃ¢â¬ their burger and the process that WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s uses allow them to do that. This allows them to target another group of society, which McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s product doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t appeal to. For example, older people who would rather sit down and have a quality meal would most likely rather go to WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers. Even, the name of WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers suggests that their style is more like how things used to be done many decades ago in terms of making quality the number one priority for a restaurant. Therefore, they would provide an alternative for people who were not interested in getting a burger that has been slopped together and sitting under a heat lamp for an hour. This would be reflected in which demographic of people each restaurant targeted. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s traditionally has targeted families as their key demographic but recently they have shifted to make their product more appealing to teenagers as well. This can best be demonstrated in their new style commercials that use many young adults and refers to McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s as Ã¢â¬Å"Mickey DÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ as a hip place to hang out. So, for young people who are in a rush to get from place to place, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s provides a fast, cheap meal that they can eat on the run. On the other hand, WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers targets people who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in such a rush and would rather sit down and eat a slow, relaxing meal (is this ageism). They still cater to those who are in a rush by offering a drive-thru. However, they know that most of their business will come from people looking for a quality alternative to McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. Another aspect of McDonaldization that has made both companies successful is calculability. This is where each restaurant puts an emphasis on quantitative aspects of products sold like portion size and cost. For example, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has burgers like the Ã¢â¬Å"Quarter PounderÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Big MacÃ¢â¬ while WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburger has burgers like the Ã¢â¬Å"Double Bacon CheeseburgerÃ¢â¬ . This use of descriptive adjectives suggests to the consumer that they are getting the most amount of food for their money. Both McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s have the option to Ã¢â¬Å"SupersizeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"BiggiesizeÃ¢â¬ an order. This makes the companies successful in our society because of our belief that bigger is better. Finally, both companies use control, especially through the substitution of non-human for human technology. For both companies that means using soft drink machines that automatically shuts off when the glass is full, french-fry machines that rings and lifts itself out of the oil when the fries are done, and the preprogrammed cash registers that eliminate the need for the cashier to calculate any prices. The main reason that this is done is because,Ã¢â¬ [people are] The great source of uncertainty, unpredictability and inefficiency in any rationalizing system. Thus, by increasing control, through increased mechanization, both companies maintain a better control over the entire organization. Also, this leads to employees not having to think about their job because the tasks they are asked to do are very repetitive. In conclusion, it is obvious that both restaurants have adopted a style of running their restaurants that makes them successful. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s style is to give the public the same burger that they have always had so that they can come to depend that they will get the same meal as they did last time. They have been a pioneer in the fast-food industry and the model that other restaurants try to imitate. On the other hand, WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s style is to make a quality product that reminds people of the Ã¢â¬Å"good old daysÃ¢â¬ . They have been directly influenced by McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in terms of how to run their fast-food restaurant to maximize speed and efficiency. However, since WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Fashioned Hamburgers would not have a chance of competing with McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s at their own game, they have developed their own niche in the market of making a quality product efficiently. What concerns me is the way these companies are phasing out the roles of their employees to the point where they are doing nothing but mindless, repetitive tasks. To me, the consequence of this will be that someday all human workers will be replaced because it is more efficient for machines to do the work. So, although McDonaldization has made both these companies very successful, there is a very serious potential downside that could have an effect on everyone. Now there is no doubt that this text can be read on a number of different levels, some of which are far more satisfactory than others. Ritzer is clearly an accessible and engaging writer. For an undergraduate audience, which is unfamiliar with the language, and indeed, critical project of radical social theory, this text provides a worthy, and indeed somewhat enjoyable introduction. Keep in mind, though, that those four principles are not necessarily pursued from the point of view of the consumer. Efficiency, for example, may entail the placing of great inconveniences upon a consumer for the sake of efficient management. Calculability may involve hiding certain information from the consumer. Predictability and control may involve a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to predict and control consumer behavior, not the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to predict what kind of product or control what kind of service he gets. Ritzer calls such breakdowns Ã¢â¬Å"the irrationality of rationalization. Ã¢â¬ Even so, there is a great perception among American consumers in particular that McDonaldized systems succeed from their own point of view based on those criteria: the systems are perceived to be more efficient, the benefits calculable, the goods and services predictable. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s rare that the consumer will ever feel himself to be more in control. McDonaldized systems take away a great deal of consumer autonomy (which I love), making decisions and implementing processes on a mass-market scale with little room for individual involvement on the part of a single customer or even a single store or plant manager. The benefit of control is one that accrues exclusively to the company. Regardless of who benefits or to what extent, the universal result is homogenization. Rationalized systems have a pronounced tendency to squash-individual tastes, niche markets, small-scale enterprise and personalized customer service. Differences are leveled, wrinkles smoothed, knots cut off Ã¢â¬â convenience at the expense of character. An overwhelming normlessness develops, along with a decrease in responsiveness among the people of our society that are involved. The system that seeks to mimic a machine becomes a machine, incapable of making exceptions or taking risks. McDonaldization is taking over our society. In the future, our wishes of fast, more efficient services will be fulfilled; but whom in the world will we ever talk too? How to cite The McDonaldization, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities Paper Chapter I Introduction Almost in all times and among all nations which have reached a sufficient level of cultural development, there have always been fraternal associations formed for higher purposes. The development of Fraternities can be traced from trade unions or guilds that emerged in England. These guilds were set up to protect and care for their members at a time when there was no welfare state, trade unions or National Health Service (Sarmiento, 2011). Various secret signs and handshakes were created to serve as proof of their membership allowing them to visit guilds in distant places that are associated with the guild they belong. Others even modify their body like piercing, tattoo, and burns. Ã¢â¬ The awakening of the Filipinos to a deep sense of injustice being practice upon them by the colonizers was the introduction of fraternal societies in the islands, and the influence of higher education obtain by those of means to schools of Hongkong and other old-world countriesÃ¢â¬ (Sarmiento, 2011). Nowadays fraternities and sororitiesÃ exist forÃ high schoolÃ students as well as college students. Like their college counterparts, most haveÃ Greek letterÃ names. There are local high school fraternities and sororities with one or two chapters, many of the local chapters of these national fraternities were not tied to or affiliated with individualÃ high schoolsÃ but were instead area based, often drawing membership from multipleÃ high schoolsÃ in a given area. The high-school fraternity has become a serious problem through the years. We will write a custom essay sample on Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lived Experiences of High School Students Involved in Fratenities and Sororities specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer These organizations have sprung into the schools even in the watchful eyes of the school administrators who suddenly felt the need to act with all forces not easy to control, and remove from school. With the DepEd Order no. 6 series of 1954, which prohibits hazing in schools, and DepEd Order no. 20 series of 1991, which prohibits the operation of fraternities and sororities in public and private elementary and secondary schools and with laid out sanctions, like suspensions and expulsion, administrators and school authorities are aiming to eradicate these organizations. The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others (Erikson, E. H. ). As they make the transition from childhood to adulthood, adolescents ponder the roles they will play in the adult world. Initially, they are apt to experience some role confusion- mixed ideas and feelings about the specific ways in which they will fit into society- and may experiment with a variety of behaviors and activities (e. g. tinkering with cars, baby-sitting for neighbors, affiliating with certain political or religious groups). Human beings are social animals; they develop and mature in dyadic, small group and other group contexts over a long period. Thus, it is not surprising that a growing body of evidence suggests that people are healthier and happier when they experience social belonging. Adolescents participate in a complex social environment populated by many friendship groups, cliques, and crowds. In the last few years, there have been many circumstances in school that are fraternity related. Various steps are taken, like investigation to suspected frat members. The school further promotes co-curricular and extra-curricular organizations and activities that can serve as more wholesome and productive alternatives to fraternities, sororities and like organizations. Various clubs were introduced by the school administrator to stir up studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in different fields and divert them to a more productive group. This study hopes to shed light on old but under-researched phenomenon in the Philippines and based on the results, develop program for interventions which is non-existent at the moment. Consequently, this study will help open a whole new of world of understanding on the subject of fraternities and sororities and its implications to the future, since only few know about these groups. Lastly, the study aims to fill the gap in current research literature in the Philippines on fraternities and sororities. It hopes to provide insight into modern conceptualizations and definitions of fraternities and sororities. This information may be used in future research on fraternities and sororities and for effecting necessary changes on government institutionsÃ¢â¬â¢ policies that govern fraternities and sororities. Statement of the Problem This study explores, describes and analyzes the lived experiences of high school fraternity members. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions: 1. What significant reason motivates high school students to join fraternities and sororities? 2. What insights, meaning and inspiration for fraternities and sororities members emerge from these experiences? 3. What do these insights reveal about their involvement in these organizations? 4. What counseling program can be designed to assist the needs of frat and not frat members? Theoretical/Conceptual Framework This study is anchored on theory of belongingness by Baumeister and LearyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1995) individuals have an evolved, and robust, need for closeness, and social belonging. This theory suggests that natural selection favored individuals who maintained close bonds with groups because this attachment provided security, and facilitated reproduction. Man is a social being in he has to be with others in order to cope with this pass paced world. Conceptual Framework Need to Belong Friends Belongingness Interventions Fraternity/Sorority The need to belong. As social being, teenagers as participants study seek to belong to, or identify oneself with others. Friends teenagers often be in the fill the gap if not satisfied in home Scope and Limitation The research is concerned with exploring and probing the lived experiences of 7-10 high school fraternity/sorority members in Canlaon City. The participants in the study are high school students currently enrolled during the school year 2011-2012 and are currently fraternity/sorority member. The participants are at least 12 years old at the time of the study. The study will use in-depth interview. This study will be conducted in public and private high schools Canlaon City for the school year 2010-2011. Significance of the Study The results of the study intend to benefit the following sectors: Educators. The study may spawn valuable insights concerning the real needs of this sector in educational institutions. This study may provide hard facts on their actual needs and the information gathered may be valuable in the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to understand them more fully and to help provide opportunities to address their pertinent needs in and outside of the school. This group is expected to benefit directly from the actual data generated in this study. School Administrators. The information gathered in this research may provide baseline data for the administrators to plan and create a more concrete program to address the needs of the fraternity and sorority members. Since this study is a first-of-its-kind in the city, the researcher expects to provide a better and more comprehensive program in the future that addresses the actual needs of the students. Guidance Counselors. This research aims to provide baseline data that will help in the formulation of appropriate guidance programs to answer the need of the students and will help them in their quest to belong. Future researchers. This research is hoped to lay down a solid foundation on the needs of students who join fraternity and sororities for future researchers who may want to further investigate the topic and explore areas not covered by the present study. Furthermore, since local data on fraternity and sorority is scarce, it is the hope of the researcher to contribute to the local literature on the subject to benefit those who would wish to delve deeper into the topic in the future. The Government, Organization Leaders and Policy-Makers. The focus of this study is an attempt to provide new knowledge to leaders of organizations, government and policy-makers. The data can help enhance and develop strategies implementing specialized training, support systems, programs and laws that might protect the welfare of our students who are still in their teenage years. Definition of Terms In order to facilitate proper understanding of the context of how they are used in the study, the following terms are defined conceptually, operationally or both. Age Ã¢â¬â conceptually and operationally defined as the length of time that somebody or something has existed, usually expressed in years (MicrosoftÃ ® EncartaÃ ® 2009. Ã © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. ) Counseling Program Ã¢â¬â a plan of action that will be the product of the results of this study Family Background Ã¢â¬â whether participant of the study is living with parents, mother only, father only, uncle/aunt, grandparents, and relatives. Fraternity/Sorority Ã¢â¬â a group of individuals formed with the spirit of brotherly love Fraternity/Sorority Member Ã¢â¬â are the participants of the study, they are self confessed affiliates of high school fraternities. Gangs Ã¢â¬â group of teenagers who perform rights often to harm to the school and society Year Level Ã¢â¬â current educational status of the participant. Chapter II Review of Related Literature The purpose of this study is to see the real picture of high school fraternities and sororities in high school. This chapter presents the review of related studies that resembles in any way of this study. Several related literature and studies are related to this study. One of these studies is the study made by Timothy E. Bleeker and Sarah K. Murnen (2005) on fraternity membership, the display of degrading sexual images of women and rape myth acceptance wherein it was found out that fraternity men had significantly more images of women displayed in their rooms and that images were rated significantly more degrading than those in the rooms of non-fraternity men. Fraternity men were found to have significantly higher scores on rape supportive attitude scale (RSA). Carolyn Kolb (2008) cites that high school fraternities like the college level groups, have Greek letter name, a motto usually related to the name initials, secret rites and handshakes and a self generating membership: new members have to be voted in by the current members. Moreover Micheal T. Gibbons (2006) in his article Ã¢â¬Å"The Idea of Fraternity RevisitedÃ¢â¬ , mentioned that the aspiration and drive for fraternity are indicated throughout the political history of human beings. An article of Jon Marcus (2004) discusses the controversy over fraternities and sororities in U. S. universities. It is being debated whether fraternities and sororities should be banned due to their involvement in sexism, alcohol abuse, hazing among others. Fraternities here in the Philippines have a Ã¢â¬Å"stigmaÃ¢â¬ according to Juan Dela Cruz (2008). That is, people think that fraternities have nothing to do any good for you. It involves in frat wars, murders and any kind of crimes. He also added that being a fratmen, especially when you are member of a big fraternity is risky and dangerous. It is true that these big frats made services to people. Another research conducted by Brett Wells and Daniel P. Corts (2008) explored on implicit attitudes towards members of social fraternities and sororities. Members of Greek organizations showed preferential responses towards Greek groups over academic and service groups. These patterns of results suggest that many independent students harbor ill feelings towards sorority and fraternity members, and it is possible that the attitudes are stronger than reported typical. Eric A. Storch and Jason B. Storch (2002) examined the relationship between membership in fraternity or sorority and the frequency of academic dishonesty. Findings revealed that (1) members of fraternities and sororities reported higher rates of academic dishonesty as compared to non-members, and (2) the degree of involvement in fraternity or sorority sponsored activities was positively associated with academic dishonesty. Arsenio Baquilid (2010) emphasized that a fraternity or sorority is a choice of lifestyle for a lifetime. It has a strong influence on ones personality. He also stressed the truth that there are fraternities that pride themselves on academic performance, extra-curricular activities, leadership development, community service and may other achievements. The organization is a venue where a person can practice the full development of an integrated personality. However Ben OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell (2009) argues that, despite negative stereotypes and news stories, fraternities can make a positive contribution to campus life. He notes that fraternity friendships create lifelong bonds between members, expose people to a variety of personality types because of the necessary diversity in any group and offer real diversity in fraternities at his alma mater, Dartmouth College. Juan Dela Cruz (2008) also included in his article that fraternity also made lot of services every year like outreach program. They adopt a baranggay and help the people there. They educate the children and give them goods. Through all the studies showed no concrete evidence on the concrete experiences and purpose of fraternities and sororities. The researcher persisted in conducting this study on the phenomenological study on the lives of high school students involving fraternities and sororities membership: Basis for a Counseling Program. Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the research design, the participants of the study, the sampling procedure, the statistical tool, the data gathering procedure and analyzing the data. The Research Design The study mainly uses the qualitative-phenomenological approach in research. The study will use the descriptive type of research methodology as to the nature of the problem. The researcher will employ the field survey and the phenomenological in-depth interviewing methods. The qualitative approach used in-depth and key informant interviews with high school fraternity/sorority members to determine their experiences in the organization. The Participants of the Study The participants of this study are 7-10 high school students who are members of fraternity and sorority in Canlaon City. The age range will be 12-20 years old. The participant will be a mixture of frat members from different organizations. In order to protect their identity and ensure confidentiality, the participants were assigned pseudonyms (quoted in parenthesis). These were the names consistently used all throughout the paper when there was a need for the researcher to refer to the participants. The Sampling Design Due to the sensitivity of the study, the researcher conducted a pre-survey. The study employs purposeful sampling in identifying the participants. The researcher selects individuals and sites for study because they can purposefully inform an understanding of the research problem and the central phenomenon under study (Creswell, 2007). A Snowball or Chain sampling will also be used by which it identifies cases of interest from people who know people who know people who know what cases are information-rich, that is, good examples for study, good interview subjects (Patton, 1990). More specifically, the study uses criterion sampling wherein only the participants who met the criteria set by the researcher were involved in the study. The criteria used are the following: (1) first, participants are high school students enrolled in the current year and (2) second, they are members of fraternity/sorority for at least 6 months prior to the interview; and (3) third, they are 12 to 20 years old. For phenomenological studies, the use of small number of participants is justifiable due to the nature of the data-gathering procedure Research Instruments An interview guide will be used by the researcher to gather data. The researcher himself will make his own questions and will not rely on pre-prepared questionnaire to gather information. Guided by an interview protocol he will gather data and the flow of the interview will largely depend on his skill in asking the right questions, probing for depth and eliciting the necessary responses from the participants. Validity of the Research Instrument As suggested by Creswell (2007), the following validation techniques will be utilized: Firstly, the use of external audits (Erlanson et al. 1993; Lincoln and Guba, 1985; Merriam, 1988; Miles and Huberman, 1994 cited in Creswell, 2007) allows an external consultant, the auditor, to examine both process and the product of the account, assessing their accuracy. The auditor should have no connection to the study. This means that the open-ended questions for the in-depth interview will be subjected to face and content validity by seeking the expert suggestion of research practitioners engaging in qualitative research in order to ensure that the questions would gather the true essence and meaning of the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences. Secondly, the use of the commonest forms of triangulation is to combine interviews with observation. Observation will test and fill out accounts given in interviews, and vice versa (Pratt, 2006). Thirdly, considerable effort was made in order to establish trust by building rapport with the participants through prolonged engagement, immersion and persistent observation. It also involves checking for misinformation that stems from distortions introduced by the researcher or informants (Ely, et al, 1991; Erlandson, Harris, Skipper and Allen, 1993; Glesne and Peskin, 1992; Lincoln and Guba, 1995; Merriam, 1998, cited in Creswell, 2007). Fourthly, clarifying researcher bias from the outset of the study is important so that the reader understands the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s position and any biases or assumptions that impact the inquiry (Merriam, 1998, cited in Creswell, 2007). In this clarification, the researcher comments on pass experiences, biases, prejudices, and orientations that have likely shape the interpretation and approach t the study. Reliability of Research Instruments In qualitative research, reliability or consistency of responses of the participants is established using a good quality recorder in order to capture the details of the in-depth interview. In this case the researcher will use the recording function of a cellular phone. The recorded responses will be transcribed in order to see the nuances of the responses, the significant verbal and nonverbal cues, including the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ tone and volume, the variations, pauses and the nuances of their responses. The stability of these responses will be the hallmark of a reliable instrument. The researcher will also use a detailed field notes to indicate of a good reliability index in qualitative research. This can be achieved by a good and competent way of transcribing the data gathered during the interview, to be conducted several times until the necessary information related to the inquiry is saturated. Data Gathering Procedure The following procedures will be observed during data gathering. The researcher will conduct a pre-survey to determine who are willing to participate in the study. Those who will agree to be participants of the study will be ask to refer others who are members of fraternity. Statistical Treatment of Data The study will use simple percentage to show the participants profile like gender, age, year level, family background and the recruitment procedure. Other findings will be in a descriptive type. Bibliography Baquilid, A. U. (2010, June). Being A Fraternity Member: Advantages and Disadvantages. http://arseniobaquilid23. blog. com/ Baumeister, R. F. , Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human emotion. PsychologicalÃ Bulletin, 117,Ã 497-529. Bleecker, T. E. , Murnen, S. K. 2005, October). Fraternity Membership, the Display of Degrading Sexual Images of Women, and Rape Myth Acceptance. Sex Role; Vol. 53 Issue 7/8, p487-493, 7p. Dela Cruz, J. (2008, October). Life of a Fratman in the Philippines: From Heaven Down to Hell. http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/1079233/life_of_a_fratman_in_the_philippines. html? cat=7 Foubert, J. D. , Garner, D. N. Thaxter, P. J. (2006, June). An Exploration of Fraternity Culture: Implic ations for Programs to Address Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault. College Student Journal; Vol. 0 Issue 2, p361-373, 13p. Gibbons, M. T. (2006). The Idea of Fraternity Revised. Perspective on Political Science; Vol. 35 Issue 4, p205-209, 5p. Kolb, C. (2008, November). Frat Boys. New Orleans Magazines; Vol. 43 Issue 2, p188-189, 2p. Marcus, J. (2011, June). Schools for Scandal: Can Fraternities shed their image? The Times Higher Education Supplement; Issue 2004, p20. MicrosoftÃ ® EncartaÃ ® 2009. Ã © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Newman, M. (2002, August). High School GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s Hazing Was Open Secret, Some Say. New York Times. OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell, Ben. (2009, December). WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Right with Fratenities. Chronicle of Higher Education; Vol. 56 Issue 16, pA76. Sarmiento, Louie Blake S. (2011). Research studies and lectures on Philippine fraternalism. Storch, E. A. Storch, J. B. (2002, June). Fraternities, Sororities, and Academic Dishonesty. College Student Journal; Vol. 36 Issue 2, p247. Wells, B. Corts, D. P. , (2008, September). Measuring Attitudes Towards Sorority and Fraternity Members: Indication of Implicit, Ingroup Favoritism. College Student Journal; Vol. 42 Issue 3, p842-846, 5p. Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton (1950); Triad/Paladin (1977), p. 242. Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, 2nd ed. Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks, California. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed. ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Pratt, N. (2006). Qualitative Research. Ã © P Woods, Faculty of Education, University of Plymouth, 2006
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Effective Communication Paper Effective Communication Paper Effective Communication Paper Debra L. Penta HCS 325 January 13,2014 Sandra Marken Effective Communication Paper Trends in virtually every workplace require employees to connect with co-workers and people who work at different locations in a professional and cohesive manner. Our employees are being asked to add to their job descriptions in order to facilitate what is needed to be achieved during the course of the day. Just as job descriptions change periodically, so do the requirements. One the biggest areas of change is how your organization may choose to communicate and share knowledge with their employees and their vendors as well as other people who come into contact with your organization (Lombardi, 2007). I have selected the Matrix Model to pattern the organization after. While I can see where it may be difficult to use with two managers who could disagree a lot, I think of the other models, this is the one which would allow the most lateral growth. By that, I mean that even though you may have two people who do not get along, hopefully they would put the best interest of the organization first. By lateral growth I mean that the managers should still do their jobs and set up their teams to meet their objectives. Not only that, but the managers need to continue to be supportive, clear, and honest with what they expect from their teams (Lombardi, 2007). As a team member I would find it much easier to work with a knowledge of what I was supposed to do as an employee and it would make it would it make for a pleasant work environment if my managers were approachable. To keep their team informed the mangers should plan to hold weekly meeting at which any new information could be shared w ith their teams. In order to make these meetings beneficial to the managers they could apply the Round Robin Technique to extract suggestions from hesitant employees. The Round Robin Technique is a technique that can be verbal or non-verbal or both. A question that may be asked from a manager can be answered verbally or written on a piece of paper, either way it is allows people who do not generally get involved with participating in meetings the chance to be heard (Lombardi, 2007). Maybe down the road when they become comfortable with how the meetings are run will no longer feel the necessity to write their answers down but will communicate verbally. The technique that I found that was the least successful was the use of sticky notes posted here and there. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t find it to be very logical. I believe that if the information is imperative and important enough to be communicated immediately the use of a smart phone and a text would be appropriate. I also think if that fails, a phone call could be the next course of action. Stress also plays a large part of workplace annoyances. Some of the ways a manager can help their employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s with stress is make them aware of the fact that you are aware of their stresses and provide some suggestions in the form of posters in the break room. 1.- Realize when youÃ¢â¬â¢re stressed, recognize your particular stress response, and become familiar with sensual cues that can rapidly calm and energize you. The best way to reduce stress quickly is through the senses; through sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch. But each person responds differently to sensory input, so you need to try to find things that are soothing to you (Seagal, 2013). 2.-Stay connected to your internal emotional experience so you
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Why We Celebrate Womens History Month In March On February 28, 1980, President Jimmy Carter wrote: From the first settlers who came to our shores, from the first American Indian families who befriended them, men and women have worked together to build this Nation. Too often, the women were unsung and sometimes their contributions went unnoticed. These words, part of his message establishing the first Womens History Week in 1980, marked the beginning of a new chapter in American history; one in which recognition of women and their work, and the promotion of their rights became a more explicit concern. That initial effort was expanded in 1987, when March was designated as Womens History Month. The Beginning: Womens History Week In 1978 in California, the Education Task Force of the Sonoma County Commission on the Status of Women began a Womens History Week celebration. The week was chosen to coincide with International Womens Day, March 8. The response was positive. Schools began to host their own Womens History Week programs. The next year, leaders from the California group shared their project at a Womens History Institute at Sarah Lawrence College. Other participants not only determined to begin their own local Womens History Week projects, but agreed to support an effort to have Congress declare a national Womens History Week. Three years later, the United States Congress passed a resolution establishing National Womens History Week, which had ample bipartisan support. This recognition encouraged even wider participation in Womens History Week. Schools focused on special projects and exhibitions honoring women. Organizations sponsored talks on womens history. The National Womens History Project began distributing materials specifically designed to support Womens History Week, as well as materials to enhance the teaching of history through the year, to include notable women and womens experience. Womens History Month In 1987, at the request of the National Womens History Project, Congress expanded the week to a month, and the U.S. Congress has issued a resolution every year since then, with wide support, for Womens History Month. The U.S. President has issued each year a proclamation of Womens History Month. To further extend the inclusion of womens history in the history curriculum (and in everyday consciousness of history), the Presidents Commission on the Celebration of Women in History in America met through the 1990s. One result has been the effort towards establishing a National Museum of Womens History for the Washington, D.C., area, where it would join other museums such as the American History Museum. The purpose of Womens History Month is to increase consciousness and knowledge of womens history: to take one month of the year to remember the contributions of notable and ordinary women, in hopes that the day will soon come when its impossible to teach or learn history without remembering these contributions. Sources National Womens History Week Statement by the President. February 28, 1980.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Corporate and global strategy - Essay Example Finally the study tried to some useful recommendation in terms of research & development and value chain cost for the company. Table of Contents Table of Contents 3 1.0 Procter & Gamble 5 2.0 Corporate Strategy 6 2.1 Core Competency of P&G 7 2.2 Overall Scope 8 3.0 Business Level Strategy 8 4.0 Internal Analysis 10 4.1 PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Value Chain 10 4.2 BarneyÃ¢â¬â¢s VRIN model 13 5.0 External Analysis 16 5.1 PESTLE 16 5.1.1 Political Environment 16 5.1.2 Economic 16 5.1.3 Social Environment 16 5.1.4 Technological 16 5.1.5 Environment 17 5.1.6 Laws and Regulations 17 5.2 PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces 17 5.2.1 Threat of New Entrants 17 5.2.2 Buyer Power 18 5.2.3 Supplier Power 18 5.2.4 Competition 18 5.2.5 Threat of Substitutes 18 6.0 Evaluation of Strategy 19 7.0 Conclusion 20 7.1 Internationalization of P&G 20 7.2 History of Global Expansion of P&G 21 References 22 1.0 Procter & Gamble Proctor & Gamble is a famous American consumer product company. The organization is headquartered at Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. The company was founded by William Procter and James Gamble in the year 1837. The company operates over ninety five countries internationally. Sales volume of the company has crossed a record mark of $82, 00 billion in the year 2011. The organization has established product leadership in various categories such as Skin Care, House Care and Oral care. More than 125,000 employees work in the Procter & Gamble. The consumer product company sells more than two hundred and sixty brands across the globe. The organization enjoys leadership in more than twenty four brands globally and able to obtain billion of dollars per annum from each of the product category. The consumer product organization has established more than twenty eight technical centres internationally (PG-Global, 2012). Proctor & Gamble emphasizes on adopting modern technology integrated with state of art research and development facility in order to achieve competitive advantage over competitors. Th ey have incorporated market research intelligence process in order to take strategic decision to expand business in foreign market (Kotler, 2009, p. 253). The company has expanded their business extensively in last twenty years and achieved phenomenal sales growth from their international business operation hence analyzing their business and corporate level strategy will help management practitioners to understand key ingredients required to develop a sustainable strategic model. Strategic analysis of Procter & Gamble will not only help management practitioners to gain insight about strategic choices but to gain knowledge about global business practices. These study will do strategic analysis of Procter & Gamble in the below mentioned manner. Step 1- Analyzing corporate strategy of P&G, Step 2- Analyzing business strategy of P&G and Step 3- Internal and External environment analysis. 2.0 Corporate Strategy The Cincinnati based company has realized the significance of globalization t o survive in the hyper competitive market and adopted themselves (read Clay Street Think Tank) according to the prerequisite of situation (Weiner, 2006, p. 22). The organization has shifted focus from delivering products to American consumers and established SBU or strategic business units internationally. Procter & Gamble has increased level of plant capacity with the intention of achieving economies of scale and deliver product mix in cost effective manner (Lofgren, 2005, pp. 102-115).